Gérard, Arnold


Ph.D at Paris-Sorbonne University (Paris 5 René Descartes)
Accreditation to direct research (HDR)

Director of Research at CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research)

1. At the Evolution, Genomes, Speciation Laboratory (LEGS)
CNRS, UPR 9034, avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Head of EVOLBEE, a honeybee research team
Contact gerard.arnold@legs.cnrs-gif.fr

Main topics

  • Research on honeybee behaviour, neurobioloy, biodiversity and different stressors (parasitic mites, predatory hornets and pesticides) (see List of publications)
  • Institutional and legal expertise on the causes of honeybee disorders and mortality (see Institutional and legal expert activity)

2. At the Institute for Communication Science (ISCC)
ISCC, 20 rue Berbier-du-Mets, 75013 Paris

Deputy scientific director
Contact gerard.arnold@iscc.cnrs.fr

Main topic

  • Interdisciplinary research on issues related to socio-technical controversies and functioning of regulatory expertise (see Recent scientific events)

Institutional and legal expert activity

2014 – French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Anses)
Member of the working group on the revision of the Decree of 28 November 2003 on the use of insecticides and miticides for agricultural use to better protect bees and other pollinating insects.

2013 – European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Hearing expert for a scientific report of EFSA Towards an integrated environmental risk assessment of multiple stressors on bees: review of research projects in Europe, knowledge gaps and recommendations, EFSA Journal 2014, 12(3): 3594, doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3594.

2013-ongoing – French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (Anses)
Member of a working group on the co-exposure of bees to stressors.

2012-2013 – European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Member of the working group that developed a Guidance Document on Risk Assessment of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees), EFSA Journal 2013,11(7): 3295, doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3295.

2011-2012 – European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Member of a working group on Bee Risk Assessment. This working group produced the Scientific Opinion on the science behind the development of a risk assessment of the effects of Plant Protection Products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees), EFSA Journal 2012, 10(5): 2668 [275 p.], doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2668.

2010-2011 – CNRS-INRA
Member of the collective expertise on Herbicide-tolerant plant varieties: Agronomic, environmental and socio-economic effects, at the request of the Ministries of Agriculture and Ecology.

2008-ongoing – Appeal Court of Paris
Legal expert on causes of honeybee mortality.

2003-2004 – Appeal Court of Toulouse
Legal expert on the effects of Fipronil (Régent ®) on honeybee.

2001-2003 – Ministries of Agriculture and Ecology
Expert on the effects of Imidacloprid (Gaucho ®) on honey bee. Scientific and Technical Committee.

1986-1992 – French beekeeping institute (ITAPI)
Scientific adviser.

1987-1991 – COPA-COGECA, Brussels
Honeybee expert.

Recent scientific events

  • Colloquium: Researchers in controversy (in French) design and organization: Gérard Arnold and Jean Foyer (Paris, December 7, 2011).
  • Colloquium: Researchers at the heart of expertise (in French) design and organization: Gérard Arnold and Laura Maxim (Paris, April 4, 2011).
    The main results of this conference were published in a volume of Hermès (in French).


Monceau, K., M. Arca, L. Lepretre, O. Bonnard, G. Arnold & D. Thiery (2018) How Apis mellifera Behaves with its Invasive Hornet Predator Vespa velutina? Journal of Insect Behavior, 31, 1-11. 10.1007/s10905-017-9658-5.

Rortais, A., G. Arnold, J.-L. Dorne, S. J. More, G. Sperandio, F. Streissl, C. Szentes & F. Verdonck (2017) Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority. Science of the Total Environment, 587, 524-537. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.127.

Monceau, K., A. Tourat, M. Arca, O. Bonnard, G. Arnold & D. Thiery (2017) Daily and Seasonal Extranidal Behaviour Variations in the Invasive Yellow-Legged Hornet, Vespa velutina Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Journal of Insect Behavior, 30, 220-230. 10.1007/s10905-017-9607-3.

Arca, M., F. Mougel, T. Guillemaud, S. Dupas, Q. Rome, A. Perrard, F. Muller, A. Fossoud, C. Capdevielle-Dulac, M. Torres-Leguizamon, X. X. Chen, J. L. Tan, C. Jung, C. Villemant, G. Arnold & J. F. Silvain (2015) Reconstructing the invasion and the demographic history of the yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina, in Europe. Biological Invasions, 17, 2357-2371.

Arca M., Papachristoforou A., Mougel, F., Rortais A., Monceau K., Bonnard O., Tardy P., Thiéry D., Silvain J.-F., Arnold G., 2014. Defensive behaviour of Apis mellifera against Vespa velutina in France: testing whether European honeybees can develop an effective collective defence against a new predator. Behavioural Processes, doi: 10.1016/j.beproc.2014.05.002

Maxim, L., Arnold, G., 2014. Pesticides and bees: the need for a new regulatory framework. EMBO Reports, 15 (1), 4. DOI 10.1002/embr.201338218.

Papachristoforou A., Rortais A., Bouga M., Arnold G., Garnery L., 2013. Genetic Characterization of the Cyprian honey bee (Apis mellifera cypria) based on microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms. J. Apic. Sci. 57 (2), 127-134.

Monceau K., Arca M., Leprêtre L., Mougel F., Bonnard O., Silvain J-F., Maher N., Arnold G. and Thiéry D., 2013. Native prey and invasive predator patterns of foraging activity: The case of the Yellow-Legged Hornet predation at European Honeybee hives. PLoS ONE 8:e66492.

Hatjina F., Papaefthimiou C., Charistos L., Dogaroglu T., Bouga M., Emmanouil C., Arnold G., 2013. Sublethal doses of imidacloprid decreased size of hypopharyngeal glands and respiratory rhythm of honeybees in vivo. Apidologie 44:467-480, DOI 10.1007/s13592-013-0199-4.

Maxim L., Arnold G., 2012. Comment les conflits d’intérêts peuvent influencer la recherche et l’expertise. Hermès, 64, 48-59.

Maxim L., Arnold G., 2012. Entre recherche académique et expertise scientifique : des mondes de chercheurs. Hermès, 64, 9-13.

Papachristoforou A., Kagiava1 A., Papaefthimiou C., Termentzi A., Fokialakis N., Skaltsounis A., Watkins M., Arnold G., Theophilidis G., 2012. The bite of the honeybee: 2-heptanone acts as a local anesthetic in insects and mammals. PLoS ONE 7(10): e47432. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047432, 1-11.

Brodschneider R., Arnold G., Hrassnigg N., Crailsheim K., 2012. Does patriline composition change over a honey bee queen’s lifetime? Insects, 3, 857-859. Doi:10.3390/insects3030857.

Loublier Y., Morlot M., Rortais A. & Arnold G., 2011. Ressources alimentaires (pollen et nectar) exploitées par l’abeille domestique (Apis mellifera L.) en région Ile-de-France. Polen, 21, 29-33.

Arca M., Capdevielle-Dulac C., Villemant C., Mougel F., Arnold G. and Silvain J.-F., 2011. Development of microsatellite markers for the yellow-legged Asian hornet, Vespa velutina, a major threat for European bees. Conservation Genetics Resources. Doi: 10.1007/s12686-011-9525-1.

Papachristoforou A., Rortais A., Sueur J., Arnold G., 2011. Attack or retreat: contrasted defensive tactics used by Cyprian honeybee colonies under attack from hornets. Behavioural Processes 86, 236-241. online: 12-2010.

Rortais A., Arnold G., Alburaki M., Legout H., Garnery L., 2011. Review of the DraI-COI-COII test for the conservation of the black honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera). Conservation Genetic Resources 3, 2, 383-391. DOI: 10.1007/s12686-010-9351-x.

Scheiner R., Arnold G., 2010. Effects of patriline on gustatory responsiveness and olfactory learning in honey bees, Apidologie, 41, 29-37.

Rortais A., Arnold G., Garnery L., 2009. Utilisation des marqueurs moléculaires pour la mise en place de conservatoires d’abeilles noires (Apis mellifera mellifera). Mémoires de la Société Entomologique de France, 8, 115-120.

Papachristoforou A., Rortais A., Arnold G., Sueur J., 2008. High frequency sounds produced by Cyprian honeybees Apis mellifera cypria when confronting their predator, the Oriental hornet Vespa orientalis. Apidologie, 39, 468-474.

Papachristoforou A., Rortais A., Zafeiridou G., Theophylidis G., Garnery L., Thrasyvoulou A., Arnold G., 2007. Smothered to death: hornets asphyxiated by honeybees. Current Biology, 17, R795-R796.

Rortais A., Tentcheva D., Papachristoforou A., Gauthier L., Arnold G., Colin M. E. and Bergoin M., 2006. Deformed wing virus is not related to honey bees’ aggressiveness. Virology Journal 3: 61.

Halm M.P., Rortais A., Arnold G., Taséi J.N. and Rault S., 2006. A new risk assessment approach for systemic insecticides: the case of honey bees and imidacloprid (Gaucho®). Environmental Science & Technology 40, 7, 2448-2454.

Châline N., Arnold G., 2005. A scientific note on the lack of nepotism in queen larval feeding during emergency queen rearing in a naturally mated honey bee colony. Apidologie 36, 141-142.

Rortais A., Arnold G., Halm M.P., Touffet-Briens F., 2005. Modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides: estimated amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar consumed by different categories of bees. Apidologie 36, 71-83.

Châline N., Arnold G., Papin C., Ratnieks F.L.W., 2003. Patriline differences in emergency queen rearing in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Insectes Sociaux 50, 234-236.

Arnold G., Quenet B., Papin C., Masson C., Kirchner W.H., 2002. Intra-colonial variability in the dance communication in honey bees. Ethology 108, 751-761.

Kirchner W.H., Arnold G., 2001. Kin discrimination in honey bees: Do bees dance with their super sisters? Anim. Behav. 61, 597-600.

Wakonigg G., Eveleigh L., Arnold G., Crailsheim K., 2000. Ontogeny of the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of honeybee drones. J. Apic. Research 39, 137-141.

Arnold G., Quenet B., Masson C., 2000. Influence of the social environment on the genetically-based subfamily signature in the honeybee. J. Chem. Ecol. 26 (10) 2321-2333.

Danty E., Briand L., Michard -Vanhée C., Perez V., Arnold G., Gaudemer O., Huet D., Huet J.-C., Ouali C., Masson C., Pernollet J-C., 1999. Cloning and expression of a queen pheromone-binding protein in the honeybee : an olfactory-specific, developmentally regulated protein. J. Neurosci. 19 (17), 7468-7475.

Danty E., Arnold G., Burmester T., Huet J-C., Huet D., Pernollet J-C., Masson C., 1998. Identification and developmental profiles of hexamerins in antenna and hemolymph of honeybee. Insect Biochem. Molec. 28, 387-397.

Danty E., Arnold G., Huet J-C., Huet D., Masson C., Pernollet J-C. , 1998. Separation, characterization and sexual heterogeneity of multiple putative odorant-binding proteins in the honey bee Apis mellifera L (Hymenoptera : Apidea). Chem. senses 23, 83-91.

Picard-Nizou A.L., Grison R., Olsen L., Pioche C., Arnold G., Pham-Delègue M.H., 1997. Impact of proteins used in plant genetic engineering: toxicity and behavioral study in the honeybee. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90, 1710-1716.

Arnold G., Quenet B., Cornuet J.M., Masson C., De Schepper B., Estoup A., Gasqui P., 1996. Kin recognition in honeybees : genetic basis of cuticular hydrocarbon production in natural conditions. Nature, 379 (6565), 498.

Struye M.H., Mortier H.J., Arnold G., Miniggio C., Borneck R., 1994. Microprocessor-controlled monitoring of honeybee flight activity at the hive entrance. Apidologie, 25 (4), 384-395.

Arnold G., Le Conte Y., Trouiller J., Hervet H., Chappe B., Masson C., 1994. Inhibition of worker honeybee ovaries development by a mixture of fatty acid esters from larvae. C.R. Biol., 317, 511-515.

Trouiller J., Arnold G., Chappe B., Le Conte Y., Billion A., Masson C., 1994. The kairomonal esters attractive to the Varroa jacobsoni mite in the queen brood. Apidologie 25, 314-321.

Nicolas G., Arnold G., Patte F., Masson C., 1993. Distribution régionale de l’incorporation du 3[H]2- désoxyglucose dans le lobe antennaire de l’ouvrière d’abeille. C.R. Biol. 316, 1245-1249.

Masson C., Pham-Delègue M.H., Fonta C., Gascuel J., Arnold G., Nicolas G., Kerszberg M., 1993. Recent advances in the concept of adaptation to odours in the honeybee. Apidologie, 24 (3), 169-194.

Trouiller J., Arnold G., Chappe B., Le Conte Y., Masson C., 1992. Semiochemical basis of infestation of honey bee brood by Varroa jacobsoni. J. Chem. Ecol. 18 (11), 2041-2053.

Nguyen Duy-Jacquemin M. and Arnold G., 1991. Spatial organisation of the antennal lobe in Cylindroiulus punctatus (Leach) (Myriapoda: Diplopoda). Int. J. Insect Morphol. & Embryol. 20 (4/5), 205-214.

Trouiller J., Arnold G., Le Conte Y., Chappe B., Masson C., 1991. Temporal pheromonal and kairomonal secretion in the brood of honeybees. Naturwissenschaften 78, 368-370.

Le Conte Y., Arnold G., Desenfant P., 1990. Influence of brood temperature and hygrometry variations on the development of the honey-bee ectoparasite Varroa jacobsoni. Environ. Entomol. 19 (6), 1780-1785.

Le Conte Y., Arnold G., Trouiller J., Masson C., Chappe B., 1990. Identification of a brood pheromone in honeybees. Naturwissenschaften 77, 334-336.

Le Conte Y., Arnold G., Trouiller J., Masson C, Chappe B. and Ourisson G., 1989. Attraction of the parasitic mite Varroa to the drone larvae of honey bees by simple aliphatic esters. Science 245, 638-639.

Le Conte Y., Arnold G., 1988. Etude du thermopréférendum de Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie, 19 (2), 155-164.

Denizot J.P., Arnold G., Geffard M., Libouban S., 1988. The use of Quetol 651 for the post-embedding immunohistochemical demonstration of Ó-aminobutyric acid on semithin sections. Histochem. J. (now: J. Mol. Histol.), 20, 222-229.

Arnold G., Budharugsa S., Masson C., 1988. Organization of the antennal lobe in the queen honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Int. J. Insect Morphol. & Embryol. (now : Arthropod struct. dev.), 17 (3), 185-195.

Le Conte Y., Arnold G., 1987. Influence de l’âge des abeilles (Apis mellifica L.) et de la chaleur sur le comportement de Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie, 18(4), 305-320.

Arnold G., Masson C., 1987. Organisation fonctionnelle du lobe antennaire de l’abeille ouvrière Apis mellifica ligustica L. analysée par la méthode au 2-[1-3H] désoxyglucose. C.R. Biol., 305 (7), 271-275.

Masson C., Arnold G., Pham-Delègue M.H., 1986. Communication chimique et neuroéthologie chez les insectes. Comportements, 5, 25-37.

Arnold G., Masson C., Budharugsa S., 1985. Comparative study of the antennal lobes and their afferent pathway in the worker bee and the drone (Apis mellifica L.). Cell Tissue Res., 242, 593-605.

Masson C., Arnold G., 1984. Ontogeny, Maturation and Plasticity of the olfactory system in the worker bee. J. Insect. Physiol., 30 (1), 7-14.

Arnold G., Masson C., Budharugsa S., 1984. Demonstration of a sexual dimorphism in the olfactory pathways of the drone of Apis mellifica L. (Hym., Apidae). Experientia (now: Cell. Mol. Life Sci.), 40, 723-725.

Arnold G., Masson C., Budharugsa S.,1983. Organisation spatiale du système nerveux antennaire de l’abeille étudiée au moyen d’une technique de marquage aux ions cobalt. Apidologie, 14(2), 127-135.

Arnold G., Masson C., 1983. Mise en place des connexions synaptiques de la voie afférente antennaire au cours du développement nymphal de l’ouvrière d’abeille Apis mellifica ligustica L. C.R. Biol., 296, 131-136.

Arnold G., Masson C, 1981. Evolution, en fonction de l’âge, de la structure externe des sensilles olfactives de l’antenne de l’ouvrière d’abeille Apis mellifica L. C.R. Biol., 292, 681-686.

Arnold G., Roger B., 1979. Group effect on the content of 10-hydroxydec-2 enoic acid in the head of worker bees. Apidologie, 10, 35-42.

Arnold G., 1979. Influence de l’isolement sur la consommation alimentaire des ouvrières d’abeille. Apidologie, 10, 29-34.

Arnold G., Delage-Darchen B.,1978. Nouvelles données sur l’équipement enzymatique des glandes salivaires de l’ouvrière d’abeille. Annales Sci. Nat., 20, 401-422.

Arnold G., 1978. Les variations annuelles dans l’effet de groupe chez l’abeille et l’origine de la mort précoce des isolées. Insectes Sociaux, 25, 39-51.

Arnold G., 1976. Mécanismes mis en œuvre dans l’effet de groupe chez l’abeille. C.R. Biol., 283, 1433-1435.

Arnold G., 1974. Les modifications de la Pars intercerebralis au cours de l’effet de groupe chez l’abeille. C.R. Biol., 279, 1539-1540.

Autres (rapports, sites web…)

Arnold, G. (2017). Rapport de l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) : Specifications for field data collection contributing to honey bee model corroboration and verification. EFSA Supporting publication, DOI: 10.2903/sp.efsa.2017.EN-1234.

Arnold, G. (2016).Rapport de l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) : Assessing the health status of managed honeybee colonies (HEALTHY-B): a toolbox to facilitate harmonised data collection. EFSA Journal 2016,14(10):4578. DOI: 10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4578.

Arnold, G. (2016). Rapport de l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA) : A mechanistic model to assess risks to honeybee colonies from exposure to pesticides under different scenarios of combined stressors and factors. EFSA Supporting publication, 2016, 13:7. DOI: 10.2903/sp.efsa.2016.EN-1069.

Arnold, G.. 2015. Rapport de l’Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l’alimentation, de l’environnement et du travail (Anses). In Co-exposition des abeilles aux facteurs de stress.